Nutrition and Disease
HCS308 Intro to Nutritional Concepts
Instructor Christine McMahon
June 12, 2016
During Pregnancy nutrition generally means supplementation due to the fact that it would be impractical to eat the amount of food that is necessary to fuel the body and support the growing baby as well. One of the common concerns during pregnancy is obesity and pregnancy-induced Diabetes. According to Sizer and Whitney (2013), the amount needed to get the nutrients needed for the baby is an amount that isn’t even possible to consume in one day. For this reason, pregnant women are encouraged to take prenatal vitamins to get the sufficient micronutrients to support the baby, in addition to eating a nutritious diet that is well-balanced.
Some of the main micronutrients that are especially important during the time of pregnancy are iron to support the additional blood flow, Folate to prevent neural tube defects and brain and spinal cord abnormalities, in addition to Vitamin D and Calcium to help strengthen the bones (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Another thing that should be included is water and fiber for proper absorption of the nutrients taken in through the diet as well as the supplementation. As mentioned in a previous blog that fiber works together with water to create volume in the colon in order to stimulate the musculature which is necessary for absorption. A lot of water in conjunction with fiber is necessary for the pregnant woman to absorb all the micronutrients from the diet as well as the supplement so that the micronutrients can make it to her growing baby and support different systems in his or her body.
Nutrition during childhood
Children have a natural tendency to eat what they need as well as how much they need and when they need. Oftentimes parents feel the need to force them to eat more than what makes them full, and they gauge their food needs by previous days and mealtime history. The fact remains, according to Sizer and Whitney (2013), that babies and children will have varying nutrition needs depending on their energy expenditure as well as growth cycles. The child naturally knows when he or she is full, and they learn to eat beyond the point of being full from the adults in his or her life. It is for this reason that it is crucial that children be raised in a nutritious environment, with everyone eating what is good for them. This way the child will grow up with a naturally healthy relationship with food as an energy, fuel, and cell restoration source.
Nutritionally speaking, children need micronutrients that are going to support their growing bodies as well as any athletic activities he or she may be part of. It is for this reason that healthy food should be available. Now, in some cases, the child has been raised on junk food before the adults in his or her life decide to eat healthily. In this case, it will take some time; however, the child will eat what is available. For this reason, it is best to stock up with healthy, fresh fruits and veggies for snacks, individual cheese packets, and even protein packs for them. If there are chips and other junk foods in the cupboards as a “backup plan” the children will eat those. If they are kept in a special cupboard for special times such as a family/friend get-together or parties, then it will be normal to save those for special times. After all, the children will only make a big deal about it if the adults have already taught them that type of relationship with food.
Nutrition for Adolescence
Teens struggle with social acceptance already, and therefore if there are nutrition and poverty involved, there may be what is called nutritional insecurity. Whether this means not knowing when the next meal will come from, or if it means the person is insecure about the types of food he or she has, either way, it is likely to lead to an overconsumption of foods and also obesity. This, according to Sizer and Whitney (2013) in their Poverty-Obesity paradox, can lead to health and social implications of obesity such as further insecurity. If overeating leads to poor money-spending choices, then it can lead to financial insecurity and even further increase the paradox. For teens, it is essential that they get proper nutrition, including protein, carbohydrates, and also fats; and is also necessary to have proper exercise, in order to keep a good metabolic balance in their system.
Nutrition for Adults
Nutrition during adulthood is still driven by peer pressure in social situations. In the picture listed above, peer pressure can also be a good thing. As mentioned above in the childhood section, the family will eat what is available; therefore, it is good to have well-balanced meals available that are packed with nutrition. Having a fresh salad ready to go and a hearty meat to put on the grill is one sure way of knowing you have a quick dinner ready. Nutrition for adults is mainly focused on the balance of the macros and ensuring absorption of the micros, and is achieved through knowing how to prepare the food. One suggestion for adults who are on the move is to prepare the meals to be eaten together with the night before. For example, marinating meat, chopping veggies for the salad, and getting breakfast items ready to put together in the morning. This will ensure that even if there is little time, the food is ready to go.
Retired and Nutritious
Nutrition for seniors changes somewhat from the time period of adulthood. For instance, seniors can suffer from osteoporosis (Sizer and Whitney, 2013), and therefore due to weakening bones it is encouraged that seniors increase their consumption of milk and food items that have Vitamin D and Calcium. Also, due to a decrease in metabolism, the caloric content is decreased as well. Because of this, it is easy to lose muscle tone; and therefore, it is greatly encouraged for seniors to engage themselves in activities that keep them moving safely and keep a good balance as long as is possible.
Mayo Clinic. (2014). Pregnancy Week by Week. Retrieved from URL:http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy-nutrition/art-20045082
Sizer, F. & Whitney, E. (2013). Nutrition Concepts & Controversies, Thirteenth Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Adolescence Nutrition Picture retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&espv=2&biw=822&bih=588&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=nutrition+adolescence&oq=nutrition+adolescence&gs_l=img.3..0i8i30l2.12970.14363.0.14502.11.11.0.0.0.0.94.822.214.171.124….0…1.1.64.img..0.11.878…0j0i30j0i5i30j0i24.-bawO_zYyB4
Adulthood Nutrition Picture retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&espv=2&biw=822&bih=588&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=nutrition+adulthood&oq=nutrition+adulthood&gs_l=img.3..0i8i30.30462.32150.0.322126.96.36.199.0.0.0.144.867.5j4.9.0….0…1.1.64.img..0.9.864…0j0i30j0i5i30.0VBkq-n41oM
Baby Nutrition Picture Retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?q=baby+nutrition&newwindow=1&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjuw-K21KfNAhUUNFIKHUehDdUQ_AUICSgC&biw=1366&bih=653
Family Nutrition Picture retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&espv=2&tbm=isch&q=nutrition+for+the+family&spell=1&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjb_J-q5abNAhXF8YMKHWz8B-AQvwUIGygA&dpr=1&biw=822&bih=588
Pregnancy Nutrition Picture retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&espv=2&biw=822&bih=632&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=nutrition+pregnancy&oq=nutrition+pregnancy&gs_l=img.3..0j0i8i30l9.21021.23509.0.236188.8.131.52.0.0.0.177.1792.15j4.19.0….0…1.1.64.img..0.19.1791.G84O8Jr_QTg
Senior Nutrition Picture retrieved from URL: https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&espv=2&biw=822&bih=588&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=nutrition+seniors&oq=nutrition+seniors&gs_l=img.3..0i8i30.66456.67197.0.673184.108.40.206.0.0.0.126.617.6j1.7.0….0…1.1.64.img..0.7.616…0j0i30j0i5i30j0i24.rkXFxAoCf8k